Active Fire Protection
Safety Projects and Installations
Professional qualification of operators
Public concurrence and Critical Infrastructures
Fire Detection and Extinction Systems
Manual and Automatic Fire Protection Systems
Connection to Fire Alarm Reception Center (CRI)
ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 Quality Certificates
Active Fire Protection
Active fire protection is intended to detect, alert, control and extinguish a fire.
Fires can cause human damage and considerable material loss. With active fire protection, the aim is to minimize the damage and fatal consequences that may arise from a fire.
Active fire protection systems can be automatic or manual. For the correct use of manual means, it is advisable to have completed prior training.
Detection Systems and Fire Alarm
Fire detection and alarm systems are responsible for detecting and warning of a possible fire in order to be able to respond quickly and effectively.
Automatic systems make it possible to detect a fire in the shortest possible time, thanks to the signal detectors distributed in the spaces to be protected. These detectors emit the alarm and location signals of the fire to a Control Center or a Fire Alarm Reception Center (CRI).
Fire detectors can be of different types:
- Smoke detectors.
- Heat detectors.
- Linear detectors.
- Flame detectors.
There are also other types of detectors such as:
- Carbon monoxide detectors
- Gas detectors
Manual systems are made up of a set of buttons that transmit a signal to the control center that is always monitored and from which it is identified where the alarm signal comes from. The intervention of people is necessary to give notice of the fire.
The alarm communication system emits visual and/or acoustic emergency signals through its devices to facilitate the rapid and orderly evacuation of a building.
In unattended fire detection systems, connection to a Fire Alarm Reception Center (CRI) is recommended, with response by qualified personnel on permanent service 24/7, 365 days a year.
Kosmos Group provides its services as a Fire Receiving Center through Grupo On Seguridad.
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Water Supply Systems
A fire-fighting supply system supplies the necessary flow and pressure to the protection systems that are connected to this system. Specifically, the UNE 23500: 2021 standard defines a water supply as “a set of water sources, delivery systems and a general water distribution network for fire protection systems intended to ensure, for one or more specific fire protection systems, the necessary water flow and pressure during the required autonomy time”.
A fire-fighting water supply system is mainly made up of an inexhaustible source of water or a tank connected to pumps that, depending on the complexity of the systems that are connected to it, ensure their correct operation.
This water supply system will be used exclusively for the installation of fire protection. However, the water supply may feed several protection systems if it is capable of ensuring the flows and pressures of each one, in the event that their simultaneous use is necessary.
Hydrant is a hydraulic equipment connected to a water supply network that drains from a large pool of water in case of fire. It allows the connection of hoses and firefighting equipment, as well as the filling of water from fire trucks.
Hydrant is usually used exclusively by firefighters. In the industrial environment they are also used by the ESIs (second-intervention Teams or Company Firefighters), and it is a system that is installed outside the buildings.
Fire Extinguishing Systems
Firefighting systems protect the spaces from the danger of a fire. They use different agents and means to control and fire a fire.
In order to choose the appropriate extinction equipment and the most appropriate preventive measures, the risks must be identified very well, as fires can be classified into different categories:
- Class A
Wood, paper and waste.
- Class B
Liquids or flammable liquable solids, such as solvents, oil, or paint.
- Class C
- Class D
Chemically very active metal class: magnesium, sodium, potassium or titanium.
- Class F
Oil and fat.
Firefighting systems can be automatic or manual.
Fire extinguishers are portable devices for extinguishing small fires. They can be of different types and sizes depending on the extinguishing agent, its effectiveness and the type of fire they can put out.
- ABC powder fire extinguishers
- Water fire extinguishers
- Water spray extinguishers
- Foam extinguishers (water + AFFF)
- Co2 fire extinguishers
- Specific fire extinguishers for metals (class D)
Fire extinguishers work by projecting the extinguishing agent onto the fire. The regulations are strict regarding its installation and maintenance. Fire extinguishers are the first element of active protection, the one that should be closest to hand in case of fire.
Fire Hydrants (BIE)
Fire hydrants are fire protection systems that are directly connected to the water supply network. They are fixed to the wall or to solid structures.
The set is designed to apply water in flow and pressure conditions in a fast and precise time on a possible fire outbreak. It consists of a reel or hose reel, a pressure gauge, a valve, a 20 or 25 meter hose and a lance. All these elements are stored inside a closet.
Its function is to suffocate fires in their initial phase. Since they work connected to the general supply network, they can apply a jet of water with a precise flow and high pressure without the risk of running out of water. They are highly recommended systems for places where there is a high traffic of people and they are easy to use.
They can be of three types depending on the flow of water they can withstand:
- The 45mm BIE, with flat hose, for the exclusive use of firefighters or qualified personnel.
- The 25mm BIE, with semi-rigid hose, easy to use by anyone.
- The 25 mm diameter BIE with an additional 45 mm diameter socket.
The dry column system is used to distribute water in buildings vertically. The pipe is empty. In case of fire, the firefighters introduce water into the pipe by means of a self-pumping truck.
The dry column system is composed of:
- A water intake on the facade or in an area easily accessible to the fire service, with the indication of “exclusive use of firefighters”
- Rising or falling pipe column (as applicable)
- Exits on different floors equipped with an easy-to-operate system where firefighters can attach their hoses.
This system is for the exclusive use of firefighters.
Fixed Extinguishing Systems by Automatic Sprinklers and Water Spray
Sprinkler and water spray extinguishing systems are fixed extinguishing systems. The sprinklers are distributed over the surface of the spaces to be protected through a system of water pipes. The pipes branch out from larger to smaller in size, the starting point being the so-called control post consisting of a series of stop and reverse flow check valves and a series of elements to transmit an acoustic, mechanical and electrical signal.
Sprinkler nozzles have a heat sensitive shut-off device. For this reason, they are activated automatically when they detect a certain temperature and open to discharge the water on the fire.
There are three types of sprinkler systems: wet pipe systems, dry pipe systems, and pre-action systems.
They act only in the space where this increase in heat has occurred, from the start of a fire and, in this way, propagation is prevented. If the fire is intense and is not controlled with the first sprinkler, the second and the third are opened… until the fire is extinguished. Usually with less than five sprinklers the fire is under control.
They are systems that are frequently used in industrial buildings, shops and large spaces.
Fixed Water Mist Fire Extinguishing Systems
Water mist fire suppression systems work in a very similar way to the sprinkler system.
A system of cylinders or pumps supplies water to one or more extinguishing nozzles, through a network of pipes. These nozzles are open and release a large amount of water mist if a fire breaks out in the protected space. Water mist has the advantage of being able to cover a large area without damaging equipment or machinery.
Fixed Physical Foam Fire Extinguishing Systems
Foam fire extinguishing systems are fixed and are especially indicated for class B fires.
The foam intended for firefighting is a set of bubbles formed from an aqueous solution, with a lower specific density than the liquid fuels on which it is applied.
It has the property of covering and adhering to both vertical and horizontal surfaces, as well as flowing freely over the burning surface without being destroyed by heat; forms a tough, continuous layer that isolates the fuel from the ambient air. It also prevents the possible reignition of the fire because it suppresses the formation of flammable vapors.
The foam can be applied through fixed discharge nozzles that produce a smooth discharge and application on the surface of the burning fuel, also through special water-foam sprinklers and finally also manually, through lances or monitors.
Physical foam extinguishing systems will be made up of the following main components:
a) Network of pipes.
b) Foam concentrate storage tank.
c) Doser or proportioner.
d) Discharge nozzles.
Depending on the expansion of the foam concentrate, three types of foam can be distinguished: low, medium and high expansion.
It is an extinguishing agent especially recommended for factories, warehouses, industrial buildings and places where flammable liquids, fuels or chemical products are stored in solid or liquid form.
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems by Gaseous Agents
Systems for gaseous extinguishing agents will be composed, as a minimum, of the following elements:
a) Drive devices.
b) Operation control equipment.
c) Containers for pressurized gas.
d) Distribution pipes.
e) Discharge diffusers.
The activation devices will be by means of automatic detection systems, appropriate for the installation and the risk, or by manual activation, in an accessible place.
The application concentrations will be defined based on the risk and the capacity of the containers will be sufficient to ensure the extinction of the fire, both requirements having to be justified.
These systems will only be usable when the safety or evacuation of personnel is guaranteed.
In addition, the trigger mechanism will include a delay in its action and a pre-alarm system, in such a way that it allows the evacuation of said occupants, before the discharge of the extinguishing agent.
Typology of gases
The range of extinguishing agents is very wide, with three large groups of agents.
- Carbon dioxide (CO2), also known chemically as carbon dioxide.
- Hydrofluorocarbons, commonly known as HFCs (fluorinated gases are in disuse due to their greenhouse effect).
- Inert gases, basically made up of noble gases or those with similar characteristics.
Depending on the type of risk to be covered, one type or another of gas will be used. Especially recommended for textile factories, hazardous material warehouses, printing presses, transformer stations, hydraulic systems and, in general, for places with liquid fuels.
Automatic Extinction for Kitchen Hoods
There is currently a great disparity of products for fire protection in industrial kitchens in which both the type of extinguishing agent and the volume of the container containing this agent vary.
The Technical Building Code (Código Técnico de la Edificación) indicates that automatic extinguishing must be installed in kitchens whose installed power exceeds 20kW in Hospital or Public Residential use, or 50kW in any other use.
The kitchen hood automatic extinguishing system must protect all the elements of the kitchen simultaneously (cooking zones, hood, plenum and ducts) to prevent the spread of the fire that can occur if only each of these elements is protected. In addition, the use of closed diffusers that activate the system by breaking a thermal bulb, thermal fuse or other device of a similar nature will not be allowed, since in this case the agent would only be discharged through the affected diffuser or diffusers by fire.
Fixed Condensed Aerosol Fire Extinguishing Systems
Fixed condensed aerosol extinguishing systems will be made up of actuation devices, operation control equipment and aerosol generator units.
Manual trigger and stop mechanisms will be marked.
Control Systems for Smoke And Heat
Heat and smoke control systems limit the effects of heat and smoke in the event of a fire. These systems can extract the hot gases generated at the start of a fire and create smoke-free areas below layers of floating smoke, thus favoring evacuation conditions and facilitating extinction work.
Heat and smoke control systems can adopt four main strategies for the movement of flue gases:
- Buoyancy of hot gases (high-ceilinged buildings).
- Differential pressurization (evacuation routes)
- Horizontal ventilation (reduced slender buildings, such as tunnels or car parks)
- Smoke extraction (in car parks or after the action of a fire suppression system).
The fire blanket consists of a safety device that has been designed to extinguish small or incipient fires. It is a sheet made of fireproof material that is placed over the fire to suffocate it by preventing the arrival of oxygen.
Fire blankets must be kept properly packaged until they are used, in order to protect them from adverse environmental conditions.
Given the nature of this product, its expiration date must be indicated, which must not exceed 20 years.
The location of the fire blankets will allow them to be easily visible and accessible. They will be located close to the points where the greatest probability of use is estimated.
An emergency light is made up of one or more lamps that are usually turned off. They have a small point of light, a green or red pilot light that stays on when the lamp is off, as a guarantee of its correct state and operation.
Installations intended for emergency lighting must ensure, in the event of failure of normal lighting, lighting in the premises and access to exits, to guarantee the safety of people who evacuate an area, and allow the identification of equipment and existing means of protection.
Review and Maintenance of Systems
Each piece of equipment and security system needs different maintenance. Going to reference professionals to have the guarantee that these systems are in perfect condition is essential.
Kosmos Group is an active member of the main associations in the fire safety sector, which endorse our good work: Cepreven, Tecnifuego and the Clúster de Seguretat Contra Incendis.
Commitment to Transparency and Rigor
In the area of security, we advise and accompany our clients, with absolute transparency. Guaranteeing the protection of our clients is our true reason for being.
Kosmos Group is not linked to any manufacturer, distributor or brand: we only recommend what we think is right for each of our customers. We owe it to them. Our goal is to be useful to them, to support them as a strategic and technological partner in security management.